Waterloo

On this day 203 years ago, the Household Cavalry were soldiers on a battlefield where history was changed.

The regiments of the Household Cavalry all fought at the Battle of Waterloo, June 18th 1815, in the last battle of a brief military campaign to stop the return of Napoleon Bonaparte and all won great distinction in the fighting; over the course of the day, Napoleon sent successive cavalry attacks to try and swamp the British lines, and it fell to the British cavalry to fight them off, pushing the French back despite being outnumbered and pitted against an enemy with better training, mounts and equipment.

The Household Cavalry Museum contains many artefacts from Waterloo which tell the stories of the men who made names for themselves on that field in Belgium over two centuries ago, including:

The Eagle of the 105th Regiment of the Line, captured by members of the Royals at Waterloo: A French Regiment’s eagle, personally given by Napoleon, was mounted on top of its standard, and represented the honour and pride of the soldiers who fought under it. For the enemy to capture an eagle was a terrible blow to the French Army, and a great honour to the man who took it (as such commemorated on the left arm of the uniform of the Blues and Royals)

– A lock of hair and a snuff-box made from the hoof of Marengo, the horse ridden by Napoleon at Waterloo

– The sword wielded by Major Edward Kelly of the 1st Life Guards, with which he killed Colonel Habert of the 4th Cuirassiers during one of the savage cavalry clashes at Waterloo (winning him a knighthood of the Order of St. Anne, as well as the personal commendation of the Russian tsar), as well as the tail of Kelly’s favourite bay mare, which carried him to safety despite a fatal lance injury to the head.

– The uniform of Sir Robert Hill, commanding officer of the Blues at Waterloo, including the musket ball removed from his arm on the field.

– A cast of the skull of Corporal John Shaw of the 2nd Life Guards; a veritable Hercules of a man, over 6ft tall with a career outside the army both as a boxer and a life model for the Royal Academy, Waterloo was Shaw’s first and last battle; he died during one of the cavalry clashes, accounting for 10 French cavalrymen before he was cut down (when his sword shattered, Shaw resorted to clubbing enemies with his helmet and the broken hilt). Given a hero’s burial on the battlefield, Shaw’s body was later exhumed and casts of his bones made to feed the vogue in British society for souvenirs with a connection to the battlefield.

– The prosthetic leg of the Earl of Uxbridge. A musket wound sustained at Waterloo necessitated the amputation of his right leg below the knee; dissatisfied with the prosthesis provided for him, Uxbridge commissioned a fully articulated prosthetic leg which would be the standard of such until as late as 1914.

These artefacts and the histories attached to them are just some of the stories that can be discovered at the Household Cavalry Museum, tied to that grey, damp day in June where on a field in Belgium over 200 years ago, the course of history was changed…

Charles II

Today, May 29th marks the birth of our regiment’s founder, King Charles II, born on 29th May 1630, as well as the date of a former celebration commemorating his return to England on May 29th 1660, his 30th birthday, after 10 years of exile in France and the Netherlands following the defeat and execution of his father, Charles I at the end of the English Civil War.

Invited to return to England upon the death of Oliver Cromwell and the political crisis that followed the collapse of his protectorate in the wake of Cromwell’s son Richard, being incapable of following his father’s work, Charles, while eager to return and retake the throne, was less than trusting of the Parliament that had sent his father to the headsman’s block. Upon his return to England, he brought with him 500 English gentry, all veterans of the Royalist cause, all of whom had paid for the privilege of protecting him, inspired by the bodyguards of other European monarchs that he had seen during his time in exile. In answer to this, the regiments that would become the Blues and Royals were established from soldiers of the disbanded New Model Army (the force that had fought for the Parliamentarian cause during the English Civil War), both sides recognizing the necessity of protecting the King’s life, but neither wishing to leave the matter in the hands of soldiers they’d spent a decade battling against.

Charles II’s reign was largely viewed fondly; he was a popular and beloved king, mainly because his reign was seen as a more lively and exuberant time for England after a decade of rule by Oliver Cromwell’s Puritans, as well as a return to normality for England after the turmoil and chaos of the English Civil War and the upheaval that followed. Charles was willing to pardon many of those who fought against his father during the Civil War, though he refused to extend that mercy to the men who had signed the death warrant of Charles I; nine were executed (the bodies of Oliver Cromwell, John Bradshaw and Henry Ireton were exhumed and posthumously beheaded), while numerous others were imprisoned for life. He was also generous and openhanded in rewarding old allies who returned to England with him in 1660, though like his father, he did endure conflicts with Parliament over certain matters towards the end of his life.

This date was, until 1859, traditionally celebrated as Oak Apple Day or simply Royal Oak Day, to commemorate the restoration of the English monarchy in May 1660. Parliament declared it a national holiday “to be for ever kept as a day of thanksgiving for our redemption from tyranny and the King’s return to his Government, he entering London that day”.

Traditionally,  celebrations to commemorate the event often entailed the wearing of oak apples  or sprigs of oak leaves, in reference to the occasion after the Battle of Worcester during the English Civil War in September 1651, when the then Prince Charles escaped Roundhead soldiers hunting hum by hiding in the branches of an oak tree near Boscobel House, Shropshire.  Anyone who failed to wear a sprig of oak risked being pelted with bird’s eggs or thrashed with nettles.

Although the holiday was formally abolished by the Anniversary Days Observance Accordance of 1859, it is still acknowledged in certain parts of the country, and the date is still afforded some significance in local or institutional customs. It is, for instance, kept as Founder’s Day at the Royal Chelsea Hospital, which was founded by Charles II in 1681.

Image copyright: National Gallery

The Guards at Christmas

As we approach the festive season, we should remember that as serving soldiers, the Household Cavalry have been required to serve on the front lines, often away from their families and home for months or even years at a time.

This altar, on display in our ‘Sacrifice’ cabinet at the Household Cavalry Museum (along with a Communion cup, wine vessel, wafer box, altar cross, Bible and priest’s stole), was used by Reverend R.K. Haines, a regimental Chaplain of the Household Battalion to perform services in the trenches from 1916-1918. In a letter to his wife written in late 1918, the Reverend Haines related that he performed two Masses in the trenches on Christmas morning 1918 in a section of the trenches that only allowed for 25 men in attendance at a time. The Reverend also remarked in his letter how unusual he found it to look out at the expanse of land between the trenches on both sides and not hear a single shot fire (although the war officially ended with the signing of the Armistice on November 11th, many of the soldiers deployed on the Western Front wouldn’t be demobilized and return home until early 1919).

portable altar

We Will Remember Them

They went with songs to the battle, they were young.
Straight of limb, true of eye, steady and aglow.
They were staunch to the end against odds uncounted,
They fell with their faces to the foe.

They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old:
Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn.
At the going down of the sun and in the morning,
We will remember them.

They mingle not with their laughing comrades again;
They sit no more at familiar tables of home;
They have no lot in our labour of the day-time;
They sleep beyond England’s foam.

– The Ode to the Fallen, from Lawrence Binyon’s poem, ‘For the Fallen’, published September 21st 1914.

To The Last Man…

A bloody last stand in the opening months of the First World War that saw nearly 300 men of the Household Cavalry give their lives in a desperate defence against increasingly furious enemy attacks.

103 years ago, October 30th 1914, a combined force of the 1st and 2nd Life Guards, as well as the Horse Guards, died fighting to the last man as they held off a German attack on their position at Zandvoorde, Belgium. On 29th October 1914, the village of Zandvoorde was being held by the dismounted cavalrymen of the 7th Household Cavalry Brigade from Major General Julian Byng’s 3rd Cavalry Division. To their left was the 1st Battalion, the Royal Welch Fusiliers of the 22nd Infantry Brigade, 7th Division. The Household Cavalry held the trenches that were located on the forward slope of the grassy knoll at the southern end of the village astride the Zandvoorde to Tenbrielen Road.

On their left was Captain Lord Hugh Grosvenor’s C Squadron 1st Life Guards, reinforced by Lord Grosvenor’s men was Lord Charles Sackville Pelham Worsley’s machine gun team from the Royal Horse Guards. Worsley and his men had already been in the line for seven days when the 1st Life Guards had replaced the Royal Horse Guards and they had been detailed to remain to support them as one of the Life Guard’s machine guns was out of action.

Lord Hugh Grosvenor, Commander of C Squadron, 1st Life Guards, who died fighting at Zandvoorde
Lord Lieutenant Lord Charles Sackville Pelham Worsley, who also died in action at Zandvoorde.

At 6am on 30th October 1914, the German guns opened fire, initially further to the left against the 1st and 2nd Divisions in front of Gheluvelt and Zonnebeke respectively. About 45 minutes later, 260 guns of the German artillery turned their attention to the defenders in the vicinity of Zandvoorde, their shells falling on the men of the Life Guards and the 1st Royal Welch Fusiliers. This artillery bombardment was followed at around 8am by an infantry attack by the German Infantrymen of the 39th Division.

The Germans attackers drove into the defending British. In front of Zandvoorde, the Life Guards were hit hard and Lieutenant Lord Worsley’s machine gun team was in the thick of the fighting. An order to withdraw to the second line of defences was issued, but this did not reach the two Squadrons to the left of the road or Lord Worsley’s machine gun team. The heavy shelling and sheer weight of enemy numbers being thrown against the Household Cavalry defending Zandvoorde resulted in Lord Grosvener’s C Squadron and Lord Worsley’s machine gunners being overrun as their fellow cavalrymen withdrew to their second line. The Household Cavalrymen who had remained at their posts were virtually annihilated; only 10 survived the battle to make it back to their own lines. The remaining other officers and cavalrymen, were listed as missing, Lord Hugh Grosvenor and Lord Worsley among them.

After the battle, a German officer, Oberleutnant Freiherr von Prankh, visited the British trench, interested in the British Machine Guns. In the trench, he came upon the body of Lord Worsley, and gave orders for Worsley’s personal effects to be gathered together and arranged a burial party. Oberleutnant von Prankh had intended to send the personal effects to Lord Worsley’s family, but he himself was tragically killed in action a few days later.

Following the report of his death, Lord Worsley’s family obtained a sketch showing where Lord Worsley had been buried. After the war, Colonel A. W. James MC, a family friend, with the aid of a 10th Hussar veteran who knew the area, went to Zandvoorde to try to locate the grave. At first they failed, but in December 1918, aided by the sketch they took a compass bearing from the crossroads that they followed to the spot where the grave was marked. A rough wooden cross had been put up by the German burial party and, although the cross piece had fallen off, the upright was still standing. Colonel James marked the spot with a pile of stones before returning to Ypres to have a replacement cross made; this was inscribed ‘RIP Lord Worlsey R.H.G. Oct. 30th, 1914’.

In January 1919, Colonel James returned to Zandvoorde with Lord Worsley’s brother to erect the new cross at the grave. They found the old cross piece, which they removed along with the old upright and erected the new cross at the grave. The old upright and cross piece was brought back to England, where they now hang together in All Saints Church, Brocklesby, Lincolnshire. Lady Worsley subsequently purchased the piece of ground in which her husband had been buried.

In late summer 1921, the decision to exhume Lord Worsley’s remains, as they were in an isolated grave, was made by the War Graves Commission as part of their concentration policy. This decision was communicated to Lady Worsley and Lord and Lady Yarboroguh, Lord Worlsey’s parents, who consented to the remains being reinterred in Ypres Town Cemetery Military Extension. A family friend, the Reverend R S Swann-Mason, travelled to Ypres to represent the family at the exhumation which took place on 8th September 1921. Lord Worsley’s remains were found five feet below the marker erected by Colonel James and positively identified by parts of the uniform markings and a gold filled tooth. They were placed in a rough timber coffin and transported to Ypres where they were reinterred the following day at 10:00 hrs. The coffin was draped in the Union Jack and a party of four officers and six private soldiers formed the carrying party; the Reverend Swann-Mason once again representing the family. The cross placed by Colonel James was used to mark his new grave until it was replaced by a CWGC headstone in 1923. The cross was then returned to the family and now hangs opposite the original in All Saints Church, Brocklesby, Lincolnshire.

Lord Hugh Grosvenor, who was the brother of the Duke of Westminster, was also buried in a grave at Zandvoorde in 1914, but the location of his grave was subsequently lost in the later shelling. He is remembered with honour on the Menin Gate Memorial to the Missing, Ypres.

The Household Cavalry Memorial now stands on the piece of land bought by Lady Worsley that was once the site of her husband’s grave. It was unveiled on 4th May 1924 by Lord and Lady Haig. The Household Cavalry Memorial is located up a narrow path off Komenstraat at the southern end of Zandvoorde. The memorial is a tall slender column topped by a cross. The face of the column is inscribed with the names of those members of the Household Cavalry Regiments, the 1st and 2nd Life Guards and the Royal Horse Guards, who fell in that bloody battle in October 1914.

In Memoriam, July 20th 1982

Today is a rather solemn occasion for the Household Cavalry. On this day 35 years ago, four members of the Regiment and seven horses lost their lives when the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) detonated a car bomb at 10:40am in Hyde Park. The Blues and Royals, riding down from Knightsbridge Barracks to perform the Changing of the Guard at horse Guards Parade were hit by the explosion.

The blast was one of two such attacks that day in London (a second bomb blast at 12:55pm in Regent’s Park claimed the lives of seven members of the Royal Green Jackets).

Four members of the Blues and Royals (Lieutenant Anthony Daly, Corporal Major Roy Bright, Lance Corporal Jeffrey Young and Trooper Simon Tipper) were killed by the bomb, while seven of the Regiment’s horses (Cedric, Epaulette, Falcon, Rochester, Waterford, Yeastvite and Zara) either died in the blast or were put down due to the severity of their injuries.

The Museum has in its collection several items connected to this tragic event, including the helmet worn by Trooper Simon Tipper on that day, as well as the hoof and damaged bridle of horse Sefton.

Sefton wounds from bomb blast were so severe it was believed he would not survive. He endured 8 hours of surgery, a record in veterinary terms at that time, treating over 34 injuries, all of them potentially life threatening. After the surgery he was given a 50/50 chance of survival, but made an amazing recovery that turned him into a national symbol of defiance. He returned to active duty with the Regiment, being awarded Horse of the Year that October.

Sefton retired from active service on 29th August 1984 and lived out the remainder of his life at a rest home for horses in Buckinghamshire. He died at the age of 30 from health complications believed to be related to the injuries he sustained in the bombing.

Remembrance

Helmet of Trooper Simon Tipper of the Blues and Royals, who died 20th July 1982 in an IRA car bombing.

Death medal of 2nd Lieutenant Howard Avenel Bligh St George

From our ‘Sacrifice’ cabinet, today we show you the death medal of 2nd Lieutenant Howard Avenel Bligh St George of the 1st Life Guards. He died on Sunday 15th November 1914, just one month after his arrival at the Front, killed while assaulting a German position, aged only 19. Also on display is a framed newspaper clipping taken from the announcement of his death (kept, we believe, by a member of his family) as well as a memorial poppy (this particular poppy was one of the first to be used as a tribute to a fallen soldier).

 

Death Medal

©L. Courtney 2016

Remembrance Sunday

As we approach Remembrance Sunday, we should remember that it commemorates all servicemen who have died in conflicts across the world to ‘secure and protect our freedoms’. In recognition of that, today we show the helmet of Trooper Simon Tipper, one of four men of the Blues and Royals (Lieutenant Anthony Daly, Staff Corporal Roy Bright and Lance Corporal Jeffrey Young) who died on July 20th 1982 when the IRA detonated a car bomb in Hyde Park at 10.40am while they were en route to the Changing of the Guard here at Horse Guards. In our ‘Sacrifice’ cabinet here at the Museum, we have a number of artefacts that commemorate this tragedy, including a letter of condolence from the Queen Mother to Andrew Parker Bowles, Lieutenant Colonel of the Household Cavalry at the time, and the hoof and bridle of the horse Sefton, whose survival and near-miraculous recovery from injuries sustained in the bombing made him a national symbol.

©L.Courtney 2016